A battery called an electrical battery or accumulator is made up of electrochemical cells capable of converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Thus, batteries generate direct current and, in this way, serve to power different electrical circuits, depending on their size and power.
Batteries fully incorporate into our daily lives since their invention in the 19th century and their massive commercialization in the 20th. The development of batteries goes hand in hand with the technological advancement of electronics.
Remote controls, watches, computers of all kinds, cell phones, and a vast group of new devices use batteries as a source of electrical power, so they manufacture with different abilities.
The fundamental principle of a battery consists of the oxidation-reduction ( redox ) reactions of certain chemical substances, one of which loses electrons (oxidizes).
While the other gains electrons (reduces), being able to return to its initial configuration given the Necessary conditions: application of electricity (charging) or closing of the circuit (discharge).
Batteries contain chemical cells that have a positive pole (anode) and a negative pole (cathode) and electrolytes that allow electrical flow to the outside. These cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy through a reversible or irreversible process, depending on the type of battery, which, once complete, depletes its capacity to receive power. In this, two types of cells are distinguished:
There are many types of batteries, depending on the elements used in their manufacture, such as:
Meagre cost but terrible performance, they are some of the first to manufacture in history. In turn, they gave rise to new batteries such as:
Nickel-iron (Ni-Fe): They consisted of thin tubes wound by sheets of nickel-plated steel. On the positive plates, they had nickel (III) hydroxide (Ni (OH) 3 ) and on the negative plates iron (Fe). The electrolyte used is potassium hydroxide (KOH). Although their life span was very long, they discontinue due to their low performance and high cost.
Nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd): They compose of a cadmium (Cd) anode and a nickel (III) hydroxide (Ni (OH) 3 ) cathode, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as electrolyte. These accumulators are perfectly rechargeable but have low energy density (barely 50Wh / kg). Also, they are used less and less due to their high memory effect (reduction in the capacity of batteries when we carry out preliminary charges) and that cadmium is very polluting.
Nickel-hydride (Ni-MH): They use nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) for the anode and a metal hydride alloy for the cathode. They have a higher load capacity and a more negligible memory effect than Ni-Cd batteries.
And also, they do not affect the environment since they do not have Cd (very polluting and dangerous). They were the pioneers in use for electric vehicles since they are perfectly rechargeable.
Batteries have a charge capacity determined by the nature of their composition and measure in ampere-hours (Ah). This means that the battery can deliver one ampere of current over a continuous hour. The higher its charging capacity, the more current it can store inside.
Finally, the short life cycle of most commercial batteries has made them powerful water. And soil pollutants, since their life cycle is complete, cannot be recharged or reused and discarded. After their metallic cover oxidizes, batteries release their chemical content into the environment and alter their composition and pH.
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