What is Banking? – Works, Changed, Types, Concepts, and More

What is Banking?

Banking is an industry that handles cash, praise, and other financial dealings. Banks deliver a safe place to stock extra cash and credit.

They offer savings accounts, diplomas of deposit, and checking accounts. Banks use these credits to make loans. These advances include home mortgages, business loans, and car loans.

Banking is one of the key drivers of the U.S. economy. It provides the liquidity needed for families and industries to invest in the future.

Bank loans and credit mean relations don’t have to but up before going to college or ordering a house.

Businesses use loans to start hiring immediately to build for future demand and expansion.

How does Banking Works?

  • Banks are a safe place to deposit extra cash. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) protects them. Sets also pay investors a small per cent of the deposited amount founded on an interest rate.
  • Banks are currently not required to save any percentage of each deposit on hand. However, the Federal Reserve can change this.
  • That regulation is called the reserve requirement. They make money by charging higher interest taxes on their loans than they pay for deposits.

How Has Banking Changed?

  • Banking underwent a period of deregulation. Congress repealed the Glass-Steagall Act in 1999.
  • That law prevents commercial banks from using ultra-safe deposits for risky investments.
  • After its repeal, the lines between asset banks and commercial banks blurred. Some commercial banks started investing in derivatives, such as mortgage-backed securities. When they failed, depositors frighten.
  • Another deregulating change came from the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994. The Act cancelled constraints on interstate banking.
  • This repeal allowable large regional banks to become national. The large banks gobbled up lesser ones as they competed with one another to gain market part.
  • By the 2008 monetary crisis, a small number of large banks skilful most of the banking manufacturing’s assets in America. That alliance meant many banks became too big to fail.
  • The federal government force them to bail them out. If it hadn’t, the banks’ disappointments would have vulnerable the U.S. cheap itself.

Types of Banking

The set of existing banks in the economic system makes up the banking or banking system. Having said all this, there are different types of bank depending on the sector to which this entity is directed and the size of its action. There are two types of banking:

Retail banking: the most common in simple operations for individuals and companies. In turn, it is divided into:

Private: financial advice, investment funds, etc.

From individuals: demand accounts, deposits, receipts and payroll, mortgages, credits, etc.

Wholesale banking: aimed at large volumes of money from important economic operations. It also divides into two segments:

Investment: financial structures, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), advice, etc.

For companies: Liability management (credit lines, factoring or confirming), fixed asset management (loans, leasing, renting, etc.).

Taking into account different classification criteria, it is also possible to classify banks into other classes:

Due to the origin of the property of each organization or banking entity, there would be:

  • Private
  • And also, Public

Taking into account the type of operations that comprise it, we find:

  • Commercial.
  • Industrial.
  • And also, Mixed.

Depending on their area of ​​action, there are:

  • Local.
  • Regional.
  • National.
  • And also, International.

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Concepts of Banking

  • The evolution of the banking concept has been developing throughout history, its nature being present in different civilizations from ancient Egypt especially.
  • However, the currency’s appearance as a means of payment meant the rapid evolution of the banking business, which reached its formal establishment in the modern age and the Renaissance.
  • In this sense, at a basic level of study, it can define that said interest collected is the bank’s profit, which faces a series of costs derived from the interest that is, in turn, pays to its creditors.
  • The difference between both variables, known as the profit or margin of a bank, is to give a simple example.
  • The bank is in charge through its activity and nature of obtaining economic and financial resources through many instruments created for this purpose, such as bonds, deposits or obligations.
  • Alternatively, this system of entities is in charge of facilitating the access of its clients to said resources through banking tools such as loans and mortgages in exchange for previously agreed interests or commissions in each operation.


A large number of entities or corporations that make up the banking system is known as banking. They carry out their specific work of raising finance and granting resource loans in the economic and financial market.

And also, the main purpose and explanation of this sector’s existence is the need for certain organizations to be in charge of carrying out financial intermediation operations. In this way, money can move from one place to another, adjusting to certain risks and deadlines set by economic reality.

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